American Asperger's Association Support Group

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» **********echo*******************
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» A.A.A. RESEARCH STUDY. Do you see any differences between females with Aspergers vs. males with Aspergers
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» What is the first step?
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Mon Aug 03, 2009 1:27 pm by csweepigirl

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Fri Jul 31, 2009 10:59 pm by Dr. Ron

» I NEED your HELP!!
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» More research (genetics)
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Thread full of information, alphabetical

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1 Thread full of information, alphabetical on Mon Jan 05, 2009 8:26 am

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AAC
Acronym for augmentative and alternative communication. AAC is a broad term for forms of communication that supplement or enhance speech. Examples of AAC include electronic devices, picture boards, and sign language.
ABA
Acronym for applied behavior analysis. Approach to teaching behaviors and cognitive skills to children with autism. ABA uses careful monitoring and positive reinforcement or prompting to teach each step of a behavior.
academic support system
System of resources (e.g., tutors, therapists, one-on-one aides) that a person draws upon in an academic or school setting to support their academic learning. People with autism may benefit from an academic support system that provides services that other students may not need.
adaptive behavior
New behavior that has come from changing a negative behavior into something that is better or more useful. For example, a person who repetitively bangs on something might be taught to use their banging for something useful, helpful, or more acceptable, like making music with a drum.
additive-free diet
Alternative therapy used to treat autism in which all foods containing preservatives and artificial colors are removed from the diet.
ADHD
Acronym for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurological disorder resulting in inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD is not included in the autism spectrum disorders.
affirmative sentence
Sentence used in a social story that give the point of view of the people involved in the situation or the general culture. An example of an affirmative sentence is: “That is okay with everyone.”
agonist
Chemical that binds to the same receptor as a chemical naturally found in the body and/or brain, and functions like that chemical. For example, a dopamine agonist activates dopamine receptors even though it is not dopamine.
agranulocytosis
Condition defined as a lack of granulocytes. Granulocytes are white blood cells that help fight infections. Agranulocytosis can be severe and potentially fatal because of dangerous infections that don't go away. This condition can be a side effect of some medications such as clozapine. Therefore people taking clozapine need to be carefully monitored for changes in their white blood cells.
aided augmentative and alternative communication
Acronym is aided AAC. Type of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Aided AAC uses objects beyond the person’s body to supplement or stimulate speech. For example, the picture-exchange communication system (PECS) is a type of aided AAC that uses pictures to communicate ideas or actions. See augmentative and alternative communication.
aided language modeling
Or ALM. ALM is a type of communication tool that is used to help people communicate. ALM uses symbols to communicate instead of spoken or written words. ALM is being explored as a tool that may help children with autism who do not talk very much tell others what they are thinking and feeling.
ALM
Acronym for aided language modeling. ALM is a type of communication tool that is used to help people communicate. ALM uses symbols to communicate instead of spoken or written words. ALM is being explored as a tool that may help children with autism who do not talk very much tell others what they are thinking and feeling.
alternative therapy
Treatment that may not currently be accepted in conventional medical practice, and may not be supported by scientific evidence. Alternative therapies may be helpful for some people.
Anafranil®️
Generic name is clomipramine hydrochloride. This medication is an antidepressant that may be prescribed off-label for children with autism to help decrease repetitive movements and improve social contacts. It is usually used to treat depression in adults. It is also approved for use in children (at least 8 years old) to treat obsessions and compulsions associated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This medication is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and is a type of tricyclic antidepressant. One possible serious side effect from the drug is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
androgen
Category of hormones that play a role in the development and maintenance of male organs and traits. Testosterone is a type of androgen.
androstenedione
Male hormone that is processed in the body to make testosterone. Androstenedione itself can work as a weak male hormone.
antagonist
Chemical that binds to a receptor and lowers or inhibits the normal receptor activity. For example, a dopamine receptor antagonist inhibits the normal functions of the dopamine receptor.
anti-oxidant
Chemical that makes free radicals less damaging by stabilizing them. Many vitamins are anti-oxidants.
antibiotic
Medication or drug that is used to treat bacterial infections.
anticonvulsant
Medication that prevents convulsing or seizures that occur with epilepsy. Epilepsy occurs in as many as 1 out of every 4 people with autism, and anticonvulsants are prescribed to help reduce seizures.
antidepressant
Medication that helps recovery from depression. Antidepressants are also used to treat other nervous system conditions or disorders, such as autism.
antipsychotic
Medication that is usually used to treat psychosis, which is a mental state that involves a loss of contact with reality. Antipsychotics are also used to treat other nervous system conditions or disorders, such as autism.
anxiety
Distress or uneasiness caused by fear of something bad that might happen. People with autism can have anxiety about things that most people do not feel anxious about.
applied behavior analysis
Or ABA. An approach to teaching behaviors and cognitive skills to children with autism. Applied behavior analysis uses careful monitoring and positive reinforcement or prompting to teach each step of a behavior.
Aricept®️
Generic name is donepezil hydrochloride. Aricept®️ is available as tablets or orally-disintegrating tablets (ODT). It is indicated for treatment of mild to severe dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. This medication enhances cholinergic function in the brain by reducing the activity of the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase. In people with autism, Aricept®️ may help improve attention, learning, and memory. Possible benefits of Aricept®️ are being tested in children and adults with autism, ADHD, and schizophrenia.
Aricept®️ ODT
Generic name is donepezil hydrochloride. Aricept®️ ODT is the orally-disintegrating tablet form of Aricept®️. It is indicated for treatment of mild to severe dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. This medication enhances cholinergic function in the brain by reducing the activity of the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase. In people with autism, Aricept®️ or Aricept®️ ODT may help improve attention, learning, and memory. Possible benefits of Aricept®️ or Aricept®️ ODT are being tested in children and adults with autism, ADHD, and schizophrenia.
ASD
Acronym for autism spectrum disorder(s). A diagnostic term that includes a range of neurodevelopmental disorders with varying degrees of severity. ASDs are marked by difficulty or impairments in communication skills and social interactions, and the presence of repetitive or stereotypical behaviors like hand-flapping. Autism disorder is the term for a severe form of autism on this spectrum. Autism spectrum disorders include autism disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegration disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The term “autism” is usually used to describe disorders included on the autism spectrum.
Asperger Syndrome
Neurobiological pervasive developmental disorder that is characterized by deficiencies in social and communication skills. Individuals with Asperger (or Asperger's) syndrome often have average or above average intelligence and typical language development. Asperger syndrome can be difficult to diagnose.
Asperger's
See Asperger Syndrome in the forum
Asperger's Syndrome
See Asperger Syndrome in the forum
assistive technology
Augmentative and alternative curriculum (AAC) interventions aided with technically advanced tools, such as VOCAs (see VOCA) or computers.
Ativan®️
Generic name is lorazepam. Ativan®️ is an antianxiety medication that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce anxiety, and to help reduce symptoms of catatonia (rigid and insensitive muscles). Ativan®️ is indicated for treatment of anxiety disorders, or for short-term treatment of anxiety associated with depression.
atomoxetine
Brand name is Strattera®️. Atomoxetine (atomoxetine hydrochloride) may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to help with hyperactivity, obsessions, and other behavior problems. Atomoxetine is usually prescribed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Atomoxetine works by changing the ways some neurons are turned on and off. One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Or ADHD. ADHD is a neurological disorder resulting in inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD is not included in the autism spectrum disorders.
atypical antipsychotics
Also called second-generation antipsychotics. This class of medications is used to treat psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These medications are also prescribed off-label for some people with autism to help reduce aggression and other negative behaviors. Atypical antipsychotics are defined only by being different from typical antipsychotics. Therefore, the class of atypical antipsychotics includes medications that work in a wide variety of ways. Currently atypical antipsychotics are considered first choice over typical antipsychotics because of fewer side effects than the typical antipsychotics in most people. Examples of atypical antipsychotics include clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine.
auditory integration training
Non-biologic alternative therapy for autism involving repeated exposure to sounds.
augmentative and alternative communication
Or AAC. Augmentative and alternative communication is a broad term for forms of communication that supplement or enhance speech, including electronic devices, picture boards, and sign language.
autism
Neurodevelopmental brain disorder that is characterized by deficits in social interactions and ability to communicate (verbal and nonverbal). People with autism often have atypical patterns of interest or behavior. The term “autism” is commonly used as a general term to include several disorders that fall under the category of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which are sometimes also called pervasive developmental disorders (PDD).
autism disorder
Diagnostic term for a severe form of autism, which is a type of autism spectrum disorder. Autism disorder is on the autism spectrum and is characterized by severe disabilities in language and communication, and severe stereotypical behaviors.
autism spectrum disorder
Or ASD. A diagnostic term that includes a range of neurodevelopmental disorders with varying degrees of severity. ASDs are marked by difficulty or impairments in communication skills and social interactions, and the presence of repetitive or stereotypical behaviors like hand-flapping. Autism disorder is the term for a severe form of autism on this spectrum. Autism spectrum disorders include autism disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegration disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The term “autism” is usually used to describe disorders included on the autism spectrum.
aversive techniques
Loud noises or restraints used to discourage undesirable behavior in the applied behavior analysis (ABA) method. These techniques are no longer acceptable to most parents and practitioners.

behavioral observation
Notice what leads up to a particular behavior, including the time/place and interactions surrounding the behavior.
behavioral optometry
Non-biologic alternative vision therapy for autism in which prisms or other special lenses are used to alter vision.
behavioral theory
With autism, a theory that autism is a behavioral disorder, with the behaviors being symptoms of other underlying disorders. This theory suggests that in some cases autism may result from several underlying disorders that lead to the observed behaviors.
beta endorphins
Peptide hormones that bind to opiate receptors in the brain. Beta endorphins can reduce the sensation of pain, and affect feelings; for example, release of beta endorphins in the body during exercise is thought to cause the feeling of "runner’s high."
biologic
Product that is made from a living source that is used to cause a change or treatment in the body. Biologics include products like antibodies, blood or plasma transfusions, vaccines, and some hormone treatments.
biomarker
Biological indicators or markers for a particular condition or state in the body. For example, if the biomarker for a disorder is present in an individual, that person is likely to have the disorder.
biomedical
Use of knowledge of biology and biochemistry to improve human health in clinical medicine. In the context of autism therapy, it involves looking for and correcting underling biological causes of behaviors.
bipolar disorder
Category of mood disorders that includes feelings ranging from extreme happiness or euphoria (mania), to sullenness and depression, and often include switching from one extreme to the other. These feelings are often more extreme than what most people would experience under the same circumstances.
bipolar mania
Mood disorder categorized by extreme happiness or euphoria that is more extreme than what most people would experience under the same circumstances, and can cycle with depression in bipolar disorder.
Buspar®️
Generic name is buspirone hydrochloride. Buspar®️ is an antianxiety medication that is indicated for generalized anxiety disorder. Buspar®️ may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to help reduce anxiety and aggression and to help improve behaviors. Buspar®️ has helped improve behaviors in some people with autism. This medication is currently being tested in children and adults with autism.



Last edited by Admin on Fri Apr 03, 2009 11:49 am; edited 4 times in total

2 C on Mon Jan 05, 2009 8:28 am

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CAI
Acronym for computer-assisted instruction. Using computers to help in the teaching of children with autism.
calcium
Essential mineral found in dairy products and green leafy vegetables. Calcium is important for overall health as well as brain and muscle function.
carbamazepine
Brand name is Tegretol®️, Carbatrol®️, or Equetro®️. Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant medication used to help control seizures. Carbamazepine may be prescribed for people with autism who have seizures, and can also help soften mood swings. This medication is indicated for treatment of epilepsy and for pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia. Carbamazepine can have serious side effects that include a serious skin reaction in people with a certain genetic background, which is more common in Asian and Caucasian (white) people than other groups. The physician should be notified immediately if any rash appears. There is also a risk of agranulocytosis and other changes in blood cells, so the person taking this medication should be monitored with regular blood tests.
Carbatrol®️
Generic name is carbamazepine. Carbatrol®️ is an anticonvulsant medication used to help control seizures. Carbatrol®️ may be prescribed for people with autism who have seizures, and can also help reduce aggression. This medication is indicated for treatment of epilepsy and for pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia. Carbatrol®️ can have serious side effects that include a serious skin reaction in people with a certain genetic background, which is more common in Asian and Caucasian (white) people than other groups. The physician should be notified immediately if any rash appears. There is also a risk of agranulocytosis and other changes in blood cells, so the person taking this medication should be monitored with regular blood tests.
case study
Intensive study of a single child with the intention of generalizing the findings to a larger population.
casein
Protein found in diary products, including milk and cheese. Casein can also be added to foods, particularly processed foods. Some people can have adverse reactions to casein, including allergic responses. Some people with autism may benefit from a casein-free diet.
casein-free diet
Dietary change used as an alternative therapy for autism. All foods with the milk protein casein (including all dairy products) are removed from the diet. Casein can also be found in other baked goods or prepared foods.
casomorphines
Protein by-products (peptides) that resemble morphine. The body naturally makes these peptides from casein (milk protein).
Catapres
Generic name is clonidine. Catapres®️ is usually prescribed to treat high blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels and reducing cardiac output. It has also been used to help alcohol withdrawal, tobacco smoking withdrawal, and diabetic diarrhea. It has been prescribed off-label in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Tourette’s Syndrome. Catapres®️ is available as tablets and transdermal patches.
catatonia
Neurological disorder with symptoms of rigid, hard, and insensitive muscles. Some people with autism can have symptoms of catatonia. It is important for physicians to distinguish between catatonia and autism when diagnosing some individuals. Catatonia can be helped with medications such as lorazepam (Ativan®️).
CDC
Acronym for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Agency of the U.S. government that is responsible for monitoring occupational and public health. The URL is www.cdc.gov.
cell membrane
Boundary of cells in the body and brain; made of lipids (fats) and proteins.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Acronym is CDC. Agency of the U.S. government that is responsible for monitoring occupational and public health. The URL is www.cdc.gov.
cerebellum
Region of the brain that controls posture, balance, and coordination. The cerebellum is located at the base of the brain between the brain stem and the cerebrum. This region is important for learned physical skills. For example, the cerebellum is important for learning to ride a bike. When the skill of riding a bike becomes automatic, the cerebellum is the region where this takes place.
cerebral cortex
Part of the brain which is the outer layer of the cerebrum, with deep valleys and ridges. It is the part of the brain that most people see in pictures of a brain. The cerebral cortex is gray in color, and is often referred to as gray matter. This region is where information processing, critical thinking, and reasoning take place. It is made up of several areas called lobes.
cerebrum
Largest region of the brain where perception, imagination, conscious thought, and decision-making occur. The cerebrum is divided into several lobes. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the cerebrum.
certified behavior analyst
ABA practitioner who has been certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) will place “BCAB” or “BCABA” after their name. The Web site lists certified behavior analysts and credential requirements. The URL is www.bacb.com.
child-specific interventions
Interventions or therapies that are designed to meet the needs of an individual child. For example, a social story can be tailored to meet a specific social need of a child, such as getting on a school bus. Alternatively, a music therapist can create a child-specific song that can be sung to a child as he enters a classroom to help the child transition to school each morning.
childhood disintegration disorder
Type of autism spectrum disorder characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) developmental delays in language, social skills, and motor skills. Skills in these areas that had been learned can be lost as the child grows older.
cholinergic
Type of neurotransmitter system that is involved in learning, short-term memory, arousal, and reward. Some psychotropic medications used to treat people with autism affect the cholinergic system. One example of such a medication is memantine. Memantine has been reported to have helped some children with autism feel less irritable. Memantine was also reported to have improved speech and behavior for people with autism.
chromium
Essential mineral that is important in regulating sugar metabolism.
circle of friends
Program designed to include an entire classroom in the process of creating a web of friendships for a child.
clomipramine
Brand name is Anafranil®️. Clomipramine (clomipramine hydrochloride) is an antidepressant that may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to help decrease repetitive movements and improve social contacts. It is used to treat depression in adults; approved for use in people who are at least 8 years old for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and to treat other types of obsessions and compulsions. This medication is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and is a type of tricyclic antidepressant. One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
clonidine
Brand names are Catapres®️ and Duraclon®️. Clonidine is usually prescribed to treat high blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels and reducing cardiac output. It has also been used to help alcohol withdrawal, tobacco smoking withdrawal, diabetic diarrhea, and to relieve pain in cancer patients. It has been prescribed off-label in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Tourette’s Syndrome. Clonidine is available as tablets, transdermal patches, or epidural injections (directly into the nervous system through the spine). Use of epidural injections (Duraclon®️) is primarily limited to relief of severe pain, as in cancer patients.
Clostridial
Type of bacteria that are common in our environment and particularly like to live in soil. When Clostridium bacteria are stressed, they produce spores. Clostridial spores are very hardy and can survive more extreme conditions than the bacteria. The spores also produce toxins that can make people sick. Clostridial spores are known for causing botulism (food poisoning) and tetanus. Some children with autism have been treated with antibiotics to rid the body of possible Clostridial spores. Some of these children showed improvement with this treatment.
clozapine
Brand name is Clozaril®️. This is an antipsychotic medication that may be prescribed off-label for children with autism to help reduce hyperactivity, fidgeting, and aggression. Clozapine lowers binding of dopamine to most types of dopamine receptors and other types of receptors on cells in the nervous system. Clozapine is usually used to treat people with severe schizophrenia, or people who repeatedly threaten to commit suicide. As a rare side effect, there is increased risk of seizures or agranulocytosis (a change in white blood cells that can be severe and result in death). The risks are a concern particularly in children and adolescents and in people who might already have a risk for seizures. The risks also increase with increasing dose of the medication. Other side effects can also occur. People taking clozapine need to be carefully monitored with regular blood tests for possible side effects.
Clozaril®️
Generic name is clozapine. This is an antipsychotic medication that may be prescribed off-label for children with autism to help reduce hyperactivity, fidgeting, and aggression. Clozaril®️ lowers binding of dopamine to most types of dopamine receptors and other types of receptors on cells in the nervous system. Clozaril®️ is usually used to treat people with severe schizophrenia, or people who repeatedly threaten to commit suicide. As an uncommon side effect, there is increased risk of seizures or agranulocytosis (a change in white blood cells that can be severe and result in death). The risks are a concern particularly in children and adolescents, and in people who might already have a risk for seizures. The risks also increase with increasing dose of the medication. Other side effects can also occur. People taking Clozaril®️ need to be carefully monitored with regular blood tests for possible side effects.
co-morbid
Medical term for two or more conditions occurring or existing in the same individual at the same time. For example, autism and epilepsy are said to be co-morbid when someone has both conditions.
cognition
Memory, analysis, and problem-solving skills.
cognitive
Associated with memory, analysis, and problem-solving skills.
collateral skills interventions
Interventions in which children with autism improve their social skills as a result of training in seemingly unrelated skills. For example, acting out dramatic scripts involving social interactions uses the collateral skill of acting to learn social skills.
communication partner
Parent, caregiver, therapist, or peer who participates in communication with a person with autism. For example, the communication partner is the one who received a PECS picture card, comments on the item (“Oh! You want juice!”), and then offers the child the item.
comprehension
An understanding of the meaning of spoken or written communication.
comprehensive interventions
Interventions designed to improve social skills that use more than one of four intervention types: 1) ecological variations; 2) collateral skills interventions; 3)child-specific interventions; and 4) peer-mediated techniques).
computer-assisted instruction
Or CAI. Using computers instead of people to teach children with autism.
concurrent
More than one activity, treatment, or therapy that is going on during the same time period. For example, a child with autism may receive concurrent speech therapy and occupational therapy.
control
As in scientific control. An untreated condition or group in a scientific study or experiment that is used to compare the treated condition or group, and to observe possible changes that occur because of the treatment. Well-designed experiments and studies use good controls.
control sentence
Sentence used in a social story written by an autistic child to help him or her remember coping strategies. For example, “I can hold on to my string while I decide.”
controlled study
Experiment using good scientific methods, including double-blind procedures and placebo controls.
cooperative sentence
Sentence used in a social story that tells the child what others will do to help him or her. For example, “The grown-up will go get the shoes for me.”
copper
Essential mineral that is toxic at high doses. Copper is important for overall health especially enzyme function.
craniosacral manipulation
Non-biologic alternative therapy for autism in which the upper neck is moved or manipulated by a trained practitioner.
creatine
Compound that occurs naturally in the body and plays an important role in metabolism and energy production in a variety of cells. Creatine is present in the diet, primarily in meat, and is also made by the body. Creatine has been popular as a supplement in sports-enhancing supplements. It has also been used as a treatment for muscular and neurological conditions. Scientists are exploring whether some people with autism may have creatine deficiency.

3 d on Mon Jan 05, 2009 8:29 am

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DAT
Acronym for dolphin-assisted therapy.
DCD
Acronym for dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder. Disorder resulting in problems with planning and motor coordination.
deficiency
Having less than normal levels of something.
deficient
State of having less than normal levels of something.
Depakene®️
Generic name is valproic acid. Depakene®️ available in capsule and syrup forms, this is an anticonvulsant used to treat epilepsy. This medication affects the way that cells get signals to turn on and off in the nervous system. This medication can have serious side effects, especially in children. People with autism who also have seizures might be prescribed this medication. Anti-seizure medicines may not completely eliminate seizures but might reduce the number of seizures. Doses and blood levels of this medication often need to be watched closely by a doctor or other health care professional.
Depakote®️
Generic name is divalproex sodium (contains sodium valproate and valproic acid). Depakote®️ is an anticonvulsant used to treat epilepsy. This medication affects the way that cells get signals to turn on and off in the nervous system. This medication can have serious side effects, especially in children. Depakote®️ is usually prescribed to treat mania in people with manic-depressive disorder, to prevent seizures in people with epilepsy, and to prevent migraines. People with autism who also have seizures might be prescribed this medication. Anti-seizure medicines may not completely eliminate seizures but might reduce the number of seizures. Doses and blood levels of Depakote®️ need to be watched closely by a doctor or other health care professional.
depression
As in clinical depression. Psychiatric disorder that is characterized by persistent low mood, lower ability to experience pleasure, and lack of interest in normal daily activities.
descriptive sentence
Sentence used in a social story that gives the who, what, where, and/or why of a social situation. For example, “There will be many shoes to choose from at the shoe store.”
developmental coordination disorder
Or DCD. Also called dyspraxia. Disorder resulting in problems with planning and motor coordination.
DHA
Acronym for (docosahexaenoic acid). An omega-3 essential fatty acid (EFA) that is very important in neurotransmission.
Diastat®️
Generic name is diazepam. Diastat®️ is a sedative in a rectal gel form. Diastat®️ is administered to people who are having severe seizures as a short-term treatment. Diastat®️ may be prescribed for people with autism who also have epilepsy, and would usually be administered during the seizure.
diazepam
Brand name is Valium®️, Valium Injection®️ or Diastat®️ (a rectal gel form). Diazepam is a sedative that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce aggression and anxiety, or for seizures. The response to diazepam can vary between individuals with autism, so each individual should be monitored carefully. Diazepam is indicated for anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal, skeletal muscle spasms, and as supplemental medication for severe seizure disorders.
DIR®️
Methodology that is used to help build social interactions with other people. In the name, “D” stands for developmental, “I” stands for individual difference, and “R” stands for relationship-based. This method emphasizes meaningful play and relationship building that is tailored to each child.
directive sentence
Sentence used in a social story that tells the child what behavior is appropriate. For example, “When I decide about the shoes, I will tell the grown-up.”
discrete trial training
Training that focuses on a single cycle of a behaviorally-based instruction routine, or in other words, one round of trying a behavior.
docosahexaenoic acid
Or DHA. An omega-3 essential fatty acid (EFA) that is very important in neurotransmission.
dolphin-assisted therapy
Acronym is DAT. Therapy that involves encounters between people with special needs and dolphins. Specially-trained therapists can be involved in working with children with autism during DAT.
donepezil
Brand name is Aricept®️ or Aricept®️ ODT. Donepezil (donepezil hydrochloride) is available as tablets or orally-disintegrating tablets (ODT), and indicated for treatment of mild to severe dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. This medication enhances cholinergic function in the brain by reducing the activity of the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase. In people with autism, donepezil hydrochloride may help improve attention, learning, and memory. Possible benefits of donepezil hydrochloride are being tested in children and adults with autism, ADHD, and schizophrenia.
dopamine
Chemical that is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Dopamine is important for normal functions of neurons, and plays a role in turning neurons on. Dopamine is important in many nervous system functions, including mood, sleep, movement, and motivation.
double-blind
Non-biased method of testing the possible effects of a treatment. In a double-blind test, the people who are rating its effectiveness do not know whether the person they are rating has actually received the treatment or placebo. The person they are rating (who took the possible treatment) also does not know.
drug
Chemical or medication that leads to changes in the body, usually with the goal of improving health. In some cases drugs can be abused, as in illegal drugs. Drugs include medications prescribed by medical professionals, as well as over-the-counter (OTC) medications.
dyslexia
Disorder resulting in problems with reading.
dyspraxia
Or DCD. Also called developmental coordination disorder. Disorder resulting in problems with planning and motor coordination.
early intervention
Assessment and treatment of a child as early as possible. Early intervention typically describes treatment between the ages and 0 and 3 and certainly before the age of four.

4 E on Mon Jan 05, 2009 8:36 am

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eclectic treatment
Intervention for children with autism that combines multiple approaches or treatments. A child who receives eclectic treatment might have a therapy program that includes picture exchange communication systems (PECS), sensory integration, speech therapy, and TEACHH activities. The eclectic treatment approach is currently widely used in public schools and special education programs.
ecological variation
Changes in the environment of the child with the hope of achieving a therapeutic goal. Ecological variations can include physical changes to the environment or social groupings of children, For example, changing work materials so that they are more appealing to the child is an ecological variation. Inclusion of children with special needs in a mainstream classroom is also considered an ecological variation.
edetate calcium disodium
Brand name is Versenate®️. Edatate calcium disodium chelates or strongly binds to divalent and trivalent metals including lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese, iron, and mercury. Edetate calcium disodium is usually prescribed and administered by a physician for metal poisoning, particularly lead, and may be used in children with autism to reduce heavy metals in their body in an effort to improve behaviors. Versenate®️ may be prescribed for children, although serious side effects, including death can occur from administration of Versenate®️ to children. Edatate calcium disodium or Versenate®️ has been confused with Endrate®️ (edentate disodium). Endrate®️ is usually administered only to adults under emergency circumstances because of the risk of death. Endrate®️ should not be used in children, according to the FDA and the CDC. Any chelation therapy in children should be administered under careful medical supervision.
edetate disodium
Brand name is Endrate®️. Endrate disodium is administered intravenously and is recommended for use only under circumstances of severe cases of metal poisoning. This is because administration of edetate disodium poses the risk of serious side effects, including death. Edetate disodium chelates or binds calcium and other trace elements such as magnesium and zinc. It is usually prescribed for emergency treatment of hypercalcemia and for control of ventricular arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms associated with digitalis toxicity in adults). According to the FDA and CDC, edetate disodium should not be used in children because of the risk of death. Edetate disodium or Endrate®️ has been confused with Versenate®️ (edentate calcium disodium), which is used to chelate lead in lead poisoning cases in children. Mistaken administration of Endrate®️ has resulted in death in some children. Any chelation therapy in children should be administered under careful medical supervision.
EFA
Acronym for essential fatty acids. Type of fatty acid that must be provided in the diet in order to meet the needs of the body and brain. They have to come from the diet because the body cannot make them from other nutrients.
eicosapentaenoic acid
Acronym for EPA. An omega-3 essential fatty acid (EFA) that is very important in neurotransmission.
elimination diet
Type of alternative therapy for autism in which particular foods are eliminated from the child’s diet.
emergent
Refers to something that is developing and will soon be observed. For example, as children with autism learn speech, it is said that their language is emergent. It implies that the skill is in the process of showing or emerging.
Endrate®️
Generic name is edetate disodium. Endrate®️ is administered I.V., and recommended only for severe cases of metal poisoning because of the risk of serious side effects, including death. Endrate®️ chelates or binds calcium and other trace elements such as magnesium and zinc. Endrate®️ is usually prescribed for emergency treatment of hypercalcemia and for control of ventricular arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms associated with digitalis toxicity in adults. Endrate®️ should not be used in children because of the risk of death, according to the FDA and the CDC. Endrate®️ has been confused with Versenate®️ (edentate calcium disodium), which is used to chelate lead in lead poisoning cases in children. Mistaken administration of Endrate®️ has resulted in death in some children. Any chelation therapy in children should be administered under careful medical supervision.
environment
All parts that make up an area surrounding something. Environment can include the environment outside, such as the air, ground, plants, and other parts of the outdoors. Environment can also refer to things inside, such as a classroom environment that includes teachers, other children, and books.
enzyme
Category of biochemicals in the body that help many normal and important chemical reactions occur, such as making neurotransmitters.
EPA
Acronym for eicosapentaenoic acid. Type of omega-3 essential fatty acid (EFA) that is very important in neurotransmission.
epilepsy
Category of various conditions that lead to seizures, which occur several times, and usually without a specific trigger. People can have a seizure and not have epilepsy.
Equetro®️
Generic name is carbamazepine. Equetro®️ is a medication provided as extended-release capsules, and is indicated for the treatment of mania in bipolar disorder. Equetro®️ can have serious side effects that include agranulocytosis and other changes in blood cells, so the person taking this medication should be monitored with regular blood tests.
equine therapy
Therapy that involves individuals interacting with and riding on horses. Specially-trained therapists work with the individual and the horse. Equine therapy may be beneficial to people with a variety of special needs, including children with autism. Equine therapy is sometimes called therapeutic horseback riding and/or hippotherapy.
Eskalith CR®️
Generic name lithium carbonate; this medication is an antidepressant that may be prescribed off-label for children with autism. Eskalith®️ is usually used for treatment of mania in individuals with manic-depressive disorder. It works by altering sodium transport in nerve and muscle cells and increasing the break-down of some neurotransmitters. Eskalith CR®️ is a controlled-release tablet form of lithium. The safety and effectiveness of Eskalith®️ in children with autism has not been proven but it may be helpful for some of them.
Eskalith®️
Generic name is lithium carbonate. This medication is an antidepressant that may be prescribed off-label for children with autism. Eskalith®️ is usually used for treatment of mania in individuals with manic-depressive disorder. It works by altering sodium transport in nerve and muscle cells and increasing the break-down of some neurotransmitters. Eskalith CR®️ is a controlled-release tablet form of lithium. The safety and effectiveness of Eskalith®️ in children with autism has not been proven but it may be helpful for some of them.
essential fatty acids
Or EFAs. Type of fatty acid that must be provided in the diet in order to meet the needs of the body and brain. They have to come from the diet because the body cannot make them from other nutrients.
essential nutrients
Nutrients such as vitamin, mineral, or fatty acid that can only be obtained from the diet. For example, vitamin C is an essential nutrient. Essential nutrients cannot be made by the body. When the body makes a nutrient from other foods or nutrients, that is called a non-essential nutrient.
etiology
In the medical field, etiology refers to the cause or origin of a disease. Many scientists are studying the etiology of autism, but no single cause has been defined.

5 f on Mon Jan 05, 2009 8:37 am

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face processing therapy
Use of a computer program that teaches skills for interpreting facial expressions and processing facial cues.
face training therapy
Use of a computer program that teaches skills for interpreting facial expressions and processing facial cues.
facilitated communication
Communication technique that involves a facilitator who places his hand over the patient's hand, arm or wrist. For example, the facilitator and patient place their hands on a board or keyboard with letters, words, or pictures and communicate the patient’s thoughts, some of which can be quite complex.
fade
To gradually stop using a tool once it is no longer needed.
false-belief test
Test used to determine whether a child understands that the point of view of another person may not be the same as his or her own.
Fazaclo®️
Generic name is clozapine. An antipsychotic medication that may be prescribed off-label for children with autism to help reduce hyperactivity, fidgeting, and aggression. Fazaclo®️ lowers binding of dopamine to most types of dopamine receptors and other types of receptors on cells in the nervous system. Fazaclo®️ is the orally disintegrating tablet form of clozapine. Clozapine is usually used to treat people with severe schizophrenia, or people who repeatedly threaten to commit suicide. As an uncommon side effect, there is increased risk of seizures or agranulocytosis (a change in white blood cells that can be severe and result in death). The risks are a concern particularly in children and adolescents, and in people who might already have a risk for seizures. The risks also increase with increasing dose of the medication. Other side effects can also occur. People taking clozapine need to be carefully monitored with regular blood tests for possible side effects.
FCT
Acronym for functional communication training. FCT is an AAC intervention meant to reduce problem behaviors by teaching a child to use communication symbols or words written on cards to get across their needs and wants. For example, a child holds a card printed with “I don’t want to do this.”
FDA
Acronym for Food and Drug Administration, The FDA is a U.S. government agency that is responsible for assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation; for example, prescription drugs are regulated by the FDA. The URL is www.fda.gov.
Floortime
Approach that focuses on parents and other individuals spending meaningful interaction time with children to enhance their emotional and social development. For children with autism, Floortime™️ is used to help build social interactions with other people. The name comes from the goal of adults getting on the floor with children for meaningful play. The approach emphasizes dealing with children at their level to engage them in a fun way. Floortime™️ is part of a broader program called DIR®️/Floortime™️ (see DIR®️).
fluency
Ability to speak, write, or communicate effectively with ease.
fluency building
Building up complex behaviors by teaching each element of those behaviors until they require less effort.
fluoxetine
Brand name is Prozac®️ or Sarafem®️; also in Symbyax®️ in combination with olanzapine. Fluoxetine (fluoxetine hydrochloride) is an antidepressant that may be prescribed for people with autism to help decrease aggression and depression. It can also help reduce repetitive behaviors, and improve language and social interactions. In some individuals, fluoxetine can make these symptoms worse, so each individual must be monitored closely. Fluoxetine is indicated for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, and panic disorder in children and adults. This medication is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
fluvoxamine maleate
Brand name is Luvox®️. This medication is an antidepressant that may be prescribed off-label for children with autism to help decrease repetitive movements and improve social contacts. It is used to treat obsessions and compulsions in people with OCD who are at least 8 years old. Luvox®️ is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
folate
Vitamin that is important for making and maintaining new cells. Folate is given as a supplement as an alternative therapy for autism. Folate helps the brain make neurotransmitters, and is very important for nervous system development.
Food and Drug Administration
Or FDA. A U.S. government agency that is responsible for assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation; for example, prescription drugs are regulated by the FDA. The URL is www.fda.gov.
Fortamet®️
Generic name is metformin hydrochloride. This medication is usually prescribed for treatment of type 2 diabetes in people over 17 years of age. Fortamet®️ works by decreasing liver glucose production, and increasing sensitivity to insulin in muscle and fat tissue. In people with autism, taking metformin hydrochloride with antipsychotic medications such as risperidone may help reduce weight gain that often occurs as a side effect of the antipsychotic medication.
Fragile X Syndrome
Or FXS. Family of genetic disorders defined by gene changes in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome. FXS is the most common inherited form of mental retardation, and approximately 25% of children with FXS have autism. About 2.5-6% of children with autism have FXS.
free radicals
Chemicals that can cause damage to living systems by changing the chemical structures of many of their biological compounds.
free-operant behavior
Behavior that occurs without prompting or restrictions during a behavioral intervention or evaluation. For example, a study evaluated ways to help children with autism cope with being interrupted. The child was performing tasks that they wanted to do (free-operant behavior) when the researcher interrupted their task.
frontal cortex
Region of the brain involved in planning, reasoning, movement, personality, and intelligence. Judgment and impulse control also occur in this region. Some therapies or interventions target this region of the brain. For example, interactive metronome therapy is thought to help strengthen the frontal cortex region. Also called frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex.
functional communication training
Or FCT. AAC intervention meant to reduce problem behaviors by teaching a child to use communication symbols or words written on cards to get across their needs and wants. For example, a child holds a card printed with “I don’t want to do this.”
FXS
Acronym for Fragile X Syndrome. Family of genetic disorders defined by gene changes in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome. FXS is the most common inherited form of mental retardation, and approximately 25% of children with FXS have autism. About 2.5-6% of children with autism have FXS.

6 g on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:13 am

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G.I.
Acronym for gastrointestinal tract. Refers to the parts of the body involved in eating, drinking, digestion, all the way through to making waste products in the feces. These parts include the throat, stomach, intestines, and colon. The G.I. tract does not include kidneys and making urine.
GABA
Acronym for gamma-aminobutyric acid. Important neurotransmitter that plays a role in the regulation of neuron excitability and muscle tone.
gamma-aminobutyric acid
Acronym is GABA. Important neurotransmitter that plays a role in the regulation of neuron excitability and muscle tone.
gastrointestinal tract
Or G.I. tract. Refers to the parts of the body involved in eating and drinking, digestion, all the way through to making waste products in the feces or stools. These parts include the throat, stomach, intestines, and colon. The G.I. tract does not include kidneys and other parts involved in making urine (those parts are part of the urinary tract).
gene expression
Genes provide the code or instructions for the body to make specific proteins. When the gene is expressed, it is turned on and the specific protein is made.
generalization
When a child learns a new skill and is able to perform that skill not just in front of the therapist, but in many different settings. For example, a child can learn to initiate conversation with a therapist and that is considered an accomplishment. A more wonderful accomplishment, however, is when the child is able to generalize the behavior and initiate conversation with his classmates at school. Other similar terms include generalizable and generalize.
generalized imitation
Theory that a young child learns by first imitating behavior of others around them, and then gradually learns to use the behavior on their own. Imitation is usually reinforced when people they are imitating give them praise and smiles for their good behavior.
Gentle Teaching
A program that focuses on teaching methods that foster four feelings: safe, loved, loving, and engaged. The program encourages teachers and caregivers to find ways to express kindness to those in their care, including those who might not return those feelings back to them.
Geodon®️
Generic name is ziprasidone. Geodon®️ is an antipsychotic medication that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce hyperactivity, aggression, self-abusive behavior, temper tantrums, lability (mood swings), social withdrawal, and repetitive behaviors. Geodon®️ is currently in clinical trials to test effectiveness in children with autism. Some children have improved with treatment. Geodon®️ is indicated for schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and agitation in people with schizophrenia. Geodon®️ works as a dopamine and serotonin type 2 antagonist, and has other effects on the nervous system.
Gestalt therapy
Type of psychotherapy that focuses on individual experience and the context that experiences occur in. This psychotherapy emphasizes personal adjustments that people can make in different circumstances. It also emphasizes personal responsibility. The therapy involves communication and personal relationship built between the therapist and their patient. Gestalt therapy is being explored for effectiveness in helping people with autism.
glial cells
Cells in the nervous system that support neurons by providing nutrients and performing other tasks including some immune and biochemical functions. For example, glial cells may play a role in managing the amount of glutamate (important for energy) in areas around neurons.
Glumetza®️
Generic name is metformin hydrochloride. Glumetza®️ is the extended release tablet form of metformin. Glumetza®️ is usually prescribed for treatment of type 2 diabetes in people over 17 years of age. Glumetza®️ works by decreasing liver glucose production, and increasing sensitivity to insulin in muscle and fat tissue. In children with autism, taking Glumetza®️ with antipsychotic medications such as risperidone may help reduce weight gain that often occurs as a side effect of the antipsychotic medication.
glutamate
Amino acid that is found throughout the body and is present in many proteins. Glutamate is also important in metabolism, the chemical process that generates energy in the body, and functions as a neurotransmitter that can turn on or trigger signals in neurons.
gluten
Protein found in many grains, including wheat and barley. Food starch also contains gluten, while corn starch does not. Gluten-containing grains and food starch are added to some canned and processed foods, like soup. Some people can have adverse reactions to gluten, including allergic responses. Some people with autism may benefit from a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free diets prohibit a number of grains, while wheat-free diets only prohibit wheat.
gluten-free diet
Dietary change used as an alternative therapy for autism. All foods with gluten (e.g., barley, rye, oats, and wheat) are removed from the diet.
gluteomorphines
Protein by-products (peptides) that resemble morphine. The body naturally makes these peptides from gluten (milk protein).

7 h on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:15 am

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Haldol®️
Generic name is haloperidol. Haldol®️ is an antipsychotic medication that may be prescribed for some people with autism to help control aggression. Haldol®️ is usually used to control tics and vocal utterances in Tourette’s syndrome and to treat schizophrenia. This medication decreases the neurotransmitter dopamine and may have other effects on the nervous system. Scientists do not yet fully understand how Haldol®️ is able to reduce aggression in people with autism. Haldol®️ can cause noticeable side effects including sleepiness and muscle stiffness.
haloperidol
tranquilizing medicine used to treat psychiatric symptoms
haloperidol
Brand name is Haldol®️. Haloperidol is an antipsychotic medication that may be prescribed for some people with autism to help control aggression. It is usually used to control tics and vocal utterances in Tourette’s syndrome and to treat schizophrenia. This medication decreases the neurotransmitter dopamine and may have other effects on the nervous system. Haloperidol can cause noticeable side effects including sleepiness and muscle stiffness.
HBOT
Acronym for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This therapy is the medical use of oxygen at pressures higher than that found naturally at normal atmospheric pressure. HBOT is used medically for a variety of conditions. HBOT is being explored for effectiveness in helping children with autism. There have been reports of HBOT improving language skills and social interaction in children with autism.
high functioning
Refers to higher skill levels in people who have some kind of special need or impairment. For people with autism, there is a range of severity of autism between individuals. For example, someone who has good communication skills and appropriate behaviors is said to be high functioning.
high-functioning
See high functioning in the glossary
hippotherapy
Therapy that involves individuals interacting with and riding on horses. Specially-trained therapists work with the individual and the horse. Hippotherapy may be beneficial to people with a variety of special needs, including children with autism. Hippotherapy is sometimes referred to as therapeutic horseback riding.
holistic medicine
Approach to medical care that evaluates and treats all aspects of the person. Holistic medicine considers physical, emotional, cultural, economic, and psychological aspects of the person’s health.
hormones
Broad term that refers to chemicals in the body that can cause a change in the body that is away from the place where the chemical was made. For example, melatonin is a hormone produced in the pineal gland that can have many different effects on the body, such as inducing sleepiness.
hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Or HBOT. This therapy is the medical use of oxygen at pressures higher than that found naturally at normal atmospheric pressure. HBOT is used medically for a variety of conditions. HBOT is being explored for effectiveness in helping children with autism. There have been reports of HBOT improving language skills and social interaction in children with autism.

8 I on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:16 am

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I.M.
Acronym for intramuscular. Route to give medication by injecting into muscle tissue.
I.V.
Acronym for intravenous. Route for giving medications or other liquids (i.e. salt solutions or liquid foods) by injection directly into blood vessels. Single injections or bags of fluids may be given I.V.
idiopathic
Of unknown cause.
immune system
System in the body that normally fights infections and other diseases such as cancer.
immune treatment
Alternative therapy used to treat autism in which a substance or substances are given to the child that are meant to improve the functioning of the immune system.
incidental learning
Learning while being around other people or situations, without specific instruction or teaching. For example, some children with autism experience incidental learning by going into a group setting with higher-functioning children.
incidental teaching
A tool of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) in which a desired behavior is taught using behavioral techniques in the course of day-to-day experience and interaction.
incontinence
Inability to control release of urine or feces.
Inderal®️
Generic name is propranolol. Known as a beta-blocker, this medication is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and other heart-related conditions. Inderal®️ is also used to help prevent migraine headaches in adults and children. Inderal®️ is being studied as a treatment for severe aggression in children with autism. Inderal®️ LA is a long-acting form of Inderal®️.
indications
As in drug indications. Conditions for FDA-approved use of a drug or medication, defined by the disease or condition that a drug would be used to treat. Indications may include other details for treatment, such as an age range of patients that the drug would be used for. Physicians are allowed to use personal judgment and prescribe medication for a non-indicated or "off-label" use when the physician has determined that the medication may help someone with a different condition than what the FDA has indicated (see off-label).
inflammation
Broad term that refers to a stimulated immune response. The immune system normally fights infections and kills cancer cells. Inflammation is the process that the immune system normally uses to do these tasks. Sometimes inflammation can occur for other reasons when there is no infection or cancer. Scientists are exploring the idea that inflammation in the brain may contribute to autism symptoms for some people.
interactive metronome therapy
Therapy that encourages coordinating rhythmic sounds with physical movements. This therapy is being used for some children with autism. The child listens to specific segments of rhythms, and learns to clap at the same time. It is thought that this therapy can help build up functions in the frontal cortex of the brain.
interdependent
Processes or behaviors that depend on one another.
intervention
An action taken to help the person improve their health and behaviors. For people with autism, interventions can include behavioral therapy, nutritional supplements, medical therapy, and others. For example, ABA therapy is a type of intervention designed to help children with autism improve behaviors.
intramuscular
Or I.M. Route to give medication by injecting into muscle tissue.
intravenous
Or I.V. Route for giving medications or other liquids (i.e. salt solutions or liquid foods) by injection directly into blood vessels. Single injections or bags of fluids may be given I.V.
isoprostane
Biomarker for the damage of cell membranes by free radicals. Isoprostane is a chemical that is made when cell membranes are damaged.

9 L on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:18 am

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Lamictal®️
Generic name is lamotrigine. Lamictal®️ is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer that may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to help reduce lethargy (tiredness), irritability, hyperactivity. It may also improve language, communication, and social skills. Lamictal®️ is indicated for treatment of epilepsy to help control seizures, and for bipolar disorder to delay mood swings. Lamictal®️ seems to change how neurons turn on and off, which affects the release of glutamate and aspartate, two amino acids that are important in neuron signaling. There is a low risk of serious rash which can lead to death, so people taking this medication need to be monitored closely by a medical professional.
lamotrigine
Brand name is Lamictal®️. Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer that may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to help reduce lethargy (tiredness), irritability, hyperactivity. It may also improve language, communication, and social skills. Lamotrigine is indicated for treatment of epilepsy to help control seizures, and for bipolar disorder to delay mood swings. Lamotrigine changes how neurons turn on and off, and the release of glutamate and aspartate, two amino acids that are important in neuron signaling. There is a low risk of serious rash which can lead to death, so people taking this medication need to be monitored closely by a medical professional.
lithium carbonate
Brand name is Eskalith®️ or Eskalith CR®️. Lithium carbonate is an antidepressant that may be prescribed off-label for children with autism. Lithium is usually used for treatment of mania in individuals with manic-depressive disorder. It works by altering sodium transport in nerve and muscle cells and increasing the break-down of some neurotransmitters. Eskalith CR®️ is a controlled-release tablet form of lithium. The safety and effectiveness of lithium in children with autism has not been proven but early studies suggest that lithium may help some children.
lorazepam
Brand name is Ativan®️. Lorazepam is an antianxiety medication that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce anxiety, and to help reduce symptoms of catatonia (rigid and insensitive muscles). Lorazepam is indicated for treatment of anxiety disorders, or for short-term treatment of anxiety associated with depression.
Luvox®️
Generic name is fluvoxamine maleate. Luvox®️ is an antidepressant that may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to help decrease repetitive movements and improve social contacts. It is used to treat obsessions and compulsions in people with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) who are at least 8 years old. This medication is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). One possible serious side effect of Luvox®️ is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully against the clinical need for the drug. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it

10 M on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:20 am

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magnesium
Essential mineral that is needed for the health of every cell in the body.
mainstream
In education, refers to the classroom setting where normally-functioning children learn during the school day. For children with autism or other special needs, attending classes with normally-functioning children is called mainstreaming.
mainstreaming
See mainstream in glossary.
maintenance
In regard to behavior, maintenance is when a behavior or concept is used correctly without prompting or reinforcement.
mand
Prompt for an item. For example, clapping hands to ask for a glass of milk.
mand training
Form of behavioral training that uses prompting and reinforcing requests for items (referred to as mands). For example, teaching someone to clap hands to ask for a glass of milk is mand training.
mania
Mood disorder of extreme happiness or euphoria that is not appropriate for the circumstances, and often cycles with depression in bipolar disorder.
mechanism
In biology, refers to the biological processes that are responsible for some physical or behavioral effect.
medication
Another word for drug; chemical or medication that leads to change in the body, usually with the goal of improving health (in some cases drugs can be abused, as in illegal drugs). Includes medications prescribed by medical professionals, as well as over-the-counter (OTC) medicines.
melatonin
Hormone naturally produced by a gland in the brain called the pineal gland. Melatonin is important for regulating sleep and other body functions. Melatonin can cause a feeling of sleepiness.
memantine
Brand name is Namenda®️. Memantine (memantine hydrochloride) is available as tablets or oral solution and is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer’s dementia. For people with autism, memantine may be prescribed off-label to help improve language, social behavior, and other behaviors. Memantine is a glutamate receptor antagonist (inhibits glutamate binding to its receptors).
metabolism
Processes of build-up and break-down of chemicals in the brain and body.
metformin
Brand name is Fortamet®️ or Glumetza®️ (extended release tablet form). Metformin (metformin hydrochloride) is usually prescribed for treatment of type 2 diabetes in people over 17 years of age. Metformin works by decreasing liver glucose production, and increasing sensitivity to insulin in muscle and fat tissue. In people with autism, taking metformin with antipsychotic medications such as risperidone may help reduce weight gain that often occurs as a side effect of the antipsychotic medication.
Methylin®️
Generic name is methylphenidate hydrochloride; Methylin®️ is in chewable tablet form. Methylin Oral®️ is in liquid form, and Methylin Oral®️ and Methylin®️ are mild central nervous system stimulants. Methylin Oral®️ or Methylin®️ may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce hyperactivity and repetitive movements. Methylin Oral®️ and Methylin®️ are indicated for treatment of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and narcolepsy (falling asleep at the wrong times).
methylphenidate
Brand name is Ritalin®️, Ritalin LA®️, Methylin Oral®️, or Methylin®️. Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous system stimulant that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce hyperactivity and repetitive movements. Methylphenidate is indicated for treatment of attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy (falling asleep at the wrong times). Also called methylphenidate hydrochloride.
mGluR5 antagonist
Acronym for mouse glutamate receptor 5 antagonist. A new class of drugs that is being explored to treat autism. mGluR5 antagonists have been used successfully in treating mental retardation in fragile X mice, although they have not been tested yet in humans. These drugs lower signaling of a type of glutamate receptor in mice. These receptors are important for functions of the nervous system and may be working too much in some people with Fragile X syndrome or autism.
microcolumn
Type of structural unit of brain cells and connective wiring in the brain. Each microcolumn is a unit of brain processing for taking information in and processing the information for a response. The size, number, and shape of microcolumns may be different in individuals with autism, according to recent research. Such differences are called microcolumnopathies.
microcolumnopathy
Changes in the size or shape of microcolumns in the brain. Recent studies suggested that there may be microcolumnopathy in brains of people with autism. The microcolumns were smaller and more numerous in brains of people with autism, as compared to people without autism.
migraine
Intense pain or throbbing in the head. People with migraines can also have nausea, vomiting, and high sensitivity to light and sound.
Modafinil
Brand name is Provigil®️. Modafinil promotes wakefulness. The FDA approved modafinil to treat narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, and shift work sleep disorder. Off-label, modafinil is used by sleep deprived people to stay awake and to treat fatigue, depression, multiple sclerosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The FDA rejected an application by the manufacturer to use modafinil as an ADHD drug due to the side effect of serious rashes. Modafinil is not approved for use in children under the age of 17. Side effects may include serious rash, chest pain, anxiety, stuffy nose, diarrhea, back pain, sleepiness and nausea or upset stomach.
motivational technique
Therapy technique that focuses on following the child’s lead and capitalizing on the child’s motivation to respond.
mouse glutamate receptor 5 antagonist
Or mGluR5 antagonist. A new class of drugs that is being explored to treat autism. mGluR5 antagonists have been used successfully in treating mental retardation in fragile X mice, although they have not been tested yet in humans. These drugs lower or inhibit signaling of a type of glutamate receptor in mice. These receptors are important for functions of the nervous system and may be working too much in some people with Fragile X syndrome or autism.

11 Glossery N on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:21 am

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naltrexone
Brand name is Revia®️ or Vivitrol®️. Naltrexone may be prescribed for autistic children to help improve ability to socialize and make eye contact. Naltrexone may also to help reduce pain sensitivity, self-injury behaviors, and repetitive behaviors. Naltrexone is usually prescribed for people who are trying to stop an addiction to alcohol or opioids (e.g., morphine or heroin). This drug is an opioid antagonist, so it binds to opioid receptors and blocks the binding of alcohol or other drugs to the receptors. In this way naltrexone stops the opioids from having an effect on the brain so that the patient is better able to overcome his or her addiction. Some children with autism have higher than normal levels of beta-endorphins in their nervous system, and naltrexone can lower beta-endorphin levels. An extended release injectable form of naltrexone is also available and is called Vivitrol®️.
Namenda®️
Generic name is memantine hydrochloride. Namenda®️ is available as tablets or oral solution. It is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer’s dementia. Namenda®️ may be prescribed off-label for people with autism in an effort to help improve language, social behavior, and other behaviors. Namenda®️ is a glutamate receptor antagonist (inhibits glutamate binding to its receptors).
narcolepsy
Abnormal condition when people fall asleep at the wrong times. People can fall asleep suddenly during the day, for example. Narcolepsy is a type of sleep disorder. Some medications that are used to treat narcolepsy are used to treat children with autism who have sleep problems.
neurocognitive
Relating to or involving the nervous system and cognitive functions or behaviors. Cognitive functions involve the thinking and reasoning functions of the brain.
neurodevelopment
Process of growth and development of the brain and nerves in the nervous system.
neurodevelopmental disorders
Disorders related to brain and nervous system development.
neurofeedback
Type of biofeedback therapy that involves individuals monitoring their own brain waves while learning to consciously change them. Neurofeedback is being used to help people with a variety of neurological conditions, including autism.
neuroimaging
Tools used to create pictures of different parts of the brain. Often includes measures of the activity in each part of the brain during a specific behavior.
neuron
Type of cell in the brain, spinal cord, and throughout the body that communicate information with biochemical and electrical signals.
neurotransmission
Communication of signals between brain cells. This communication is critical to the functioning of the brain.
neurotransmitter
Chemical produced by cells in the nervous system that is used to communicate information between brain cells.
non-biologic
Treatment that was not made from living things, and is intended to affect or change the body. Most medications are non-biologics.
nutrition
Total intake of any foods, liquids, and supplements that are taken in the body by eating or drinking. “Good nutrition” refers to a balanced diet of foods and drinks geared toward good health.

12 Glossery O on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:22 am

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object-initiated interactions
Type of interaction that is started with the help of some kind of object. This method is used for teaching social skills. For example, a child with autism is taught to use an object such as a walkie-talkie to approach someone, and then offer to share it or play with it.
observational learning
Learning by watching others. For example, some children with autism experience observational learning when they are in classrooms with higher-functioning children.
obsessive thoughts
Thoughts about the same ideas or objects that occur so often that they get in the way of normal activities.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Acronym is OCD. Type of anxiety disorder with obsessive thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors. Obsessive thoughts are thoughts not based in reality that focus on something so much that it affects normal daily life. Examples of repetitive behaviors or rituals include cleaning, washing hands, or counting. Rituals are often performed with hopes of making obsessive thoughts go away. When people with OCD do these rituals and other people notice, it often increases their anxiety even more.
occupational therapist
Or OT. Health care professional who works with patients to achieve greater independence by improving neuropsychological deficits, motor function, sensory function, and interpersonal skills.
occupational therapy
Or OT. Type of therapy that focuses on improving abilities to perform daily functional behaviors and tasks. For children with autism, occupational therapy can help them to function in their environment, such as at home and at school. Occupational therapy utilizes activities and treatments for helping with sensory input and physical movements. It can also help with neuromuscular functions (helping nerves and muscles function better together). Studies have suggested that occupational therapy can help some children with autism.
OCD
Acronym for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Type of anxiety disorder with obsessive thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors. Obsessive thoughts are thoughts not based in reality that focus on something so much that it affects normal daily life. Examples of repetitive behaviors or rituals include cleaning, washing hands, or counting. Rituals are often performed with hopes of making obsessive thoughts go away. When people with OCD do these rituals and other people notice, it often increases their anxiety even more.
off-label
For medications, the term “off-label” refers to when a physician prescribes a medication for use in a condition that is not included in FDA-specified uses for that medication. Physicians are allowed to use personal judgment and prescribe medication for a non-indicated or “off-label” use when the physician thinks that the medication may help someone with a different condition than what the FDA has indicated (see indications). Many medications are used off-label to treat conditions that are not indicated by the FDA. Typically, case studies then report if the medications worked in such off-label uses. If they worked, then larger clinical trials are performed to see if the medication is able to be helpful for most people with that specific condition. When there are enough positive clinical studies, the FDA may revise indications for the drug to include the new condition.
olanzapine
Brand name is Zyprexa®️, Zyprexa®️ Zydis®️, or Zyprexa®️ Intramuscular; also in Symbyax®️ in combination with fluoxetine. Olanzapine is a psychotropic medication that may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to reduce disruptive and repetitive behaviors. Olanzapine is indicated for treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (mania). Zyprexa®️ Intramuscular is indicated for the treatment of agitation in people with schizophrenia and bipolar mania. Olanzapine works as a dopamine and serotonin type 2 antagonist, and has other effects on the nervous system. Side effects can include weight gain, increased appetite, and dry mouth.
omega-3
Essential fatty acid that is found in fish and other foods, and is critical for brain function. Omega-3 fatty acids are deficient or lacking in most American diets. Many nutrionists recommend a ratio of 4:1 omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids. Most American diets have a ratio of about 15 to 1.
omega-6
Essential fatty acid that is found in most processed oils such as corn oil and peanut oil. Omega-6 fatty acids are critical for brain function and are found in over-abundance in most diets. Excess of omega-6 fatty acids in the diet is thought to contribute to inflammation and other conditions, and possibly autism. Many nutritionists recommend a ratio of 4:1 omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids. Most American diets have a ratio of about 15 to 1.
on-task
Focused on the activity of the moment instead of being distracted by other activities.
open-label study
Type of scientific study in which the scientist, doctor, and patient all know which drug or medication is being tested. This type of study is different from the double-blind study in which they don’t know whether they are taking a drug or placebo.
oxcarbazepine
Brand name is Trileptal®️. Anti-seizure medication that affects the way neurons are turned on and off. People with autism who also have seizures might be prescribed this medication. Anti-seizure medicines may not completely eliminate seizures but might reduce the number of seizures. Doses and blood levels of this medication often need to be watched closely by a doctor or other health care professional.
oxidative stress
Condition in which free radicals cause damage to the body and brain.
oxytocin
Hormone normally produced in the body which is also a neurotransmitter. Oxytocin has been used as an alternative therapy for autism in adults. Oxytocin may improve social functioning and bonding for some people with autism.

13 P on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:23 am

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PDD
Acronym for pervasive developmental disorder. PDD is defined as a broad category of disorders in which there is a delay in the development of basic functions including communication and social interaction. PDD includes autism spectrum disorders (autism disorder, childhood disintegration disorder, Rett syndrome, Asperger’s syndrome, and PDD-not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS) (see autism spectrum disorders).
PDD-NOS
Acronym for pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. PDD-NOS is a diagnostic term for a type of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) on the autism spectrum that does not fit diagnostic criteria under the other four types of PDD on the autism spectrum (autism disorder, childhood disintegration disorder, Rett syndrome, Asperger’s syndrome).
PECS
Acronym for picture exchange communication system. Method of using picture symbols to communicate.
peer mentors
Children who are trained to interact with their peers for specific tasks. For example, children may be trained to work with an autistic child.
peer tutoring
Tool which is used in autism therapy for improving social skills in which non-autistic peers of a child with autism are trained to use incidental teaching techniques.
peer-mediated techniques
Tool which is used in autism therapy for improving social skills in which non-autistic peers of a child with autism are trained to interact and play with the child, reinforcing socially appropriate behavior such as sharing, helping, and giving affection.
peer-reviewed
Refers to a process of having people of similar training and expertise review an article or a study. Peer-reviewed scientific articles are generally considered more reliable than articles not peer-reviewed. People who are experts in the topic that is being published check on whether the study was done well, and whether the article was written accurately.
perspective sentences
Sentence used in a social story that gives the point of view of the child For example, “I might not know which shoes I like.”
pervasive developmental disorder
Or PDD. PDD is defined as a broad category of disorders in which there is a delay in the development of basic functions including communication and social interaction. PDD includes autism spectrum disorders (autism disorder, childhood disintegration disorder, Rett syndrome, Asperger’s syndrome, and PDD-not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS) (see autism spectrum disorders).
pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified
Or PDD-NOS. A diagnostic term for a type of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) on the autism spectrum that does not fit diagnostic criteria under the other four types of PDD (autism disorder, childhood disintegration disorder, Rett syndrome, Asperger’s syndrome).
pharmacotherapy
Therapy that involves treatment with medications or drugs. People with autism often receive some form of pharmacotherapy to help improve brain functions and behaviors.
pharmacotherapy
Therapy that involves treatment with medications or drugs. People with autism often receive some form of pharmacotherapy to help improve brain functions and behaviors.
picture exchange communication system
Or PECS. Method of using picture symbols to communicate.
picture symbols
Symbols or drawings that represent an idea or a word. Picture symbols can be used to help people with autism communicate. Individuals can point to picture symbols to communicate a message.
pilot study
Type of scientific study designed to test the value and logistics of doing a larger study using the same design. Pilot studies usually test a smaller sample size. It is a way for scientists to work out the kinks before doing a larger-scale study. The results of a pilot study might not be conclusive because of the small sample size. The scientists would need to do a larger study in order to test whether the results are valid.
pioglitazone
Brand name is Actos®️. Pioglitazone (pioglitazone hydrochloride) is usually prescribed for treatment of diabetes. Pioglitazone works by decreasing insulin resistance, and increasing sensitivity to insulin in muscle and fat tissue. Pioglitazone has also been shown to be anti-inflammatory in some conditions. Pioglitazone is being tested in people with neurological disorders, including autism, because it can also be anti-inflammatory in glial cells in the brain. Preliminary studies showed improvements in behavior in children with autism.
piracetam
Drug also used as a dietary supplement that is claimed to enhance cognition, memory, blood flow to the brain, and other effects. Piracetam is approved for prescription use for certain muscle twitches, but is also used off-label for other conditions. Piracetam is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
pivotal response training
Type of training in which certain behaviors are assumed to be crucial for other behaviors. These pivotal behaviors are then targeted so that the behaviors that depend upon them can change as well.
placebo
False drug, often consisting of a sugar pill with no active medicine, used for comparison with drugs being tested in a study. Usually the person taking the placebo is not told that they are only taking a sugar pill.
placebo effect
Benefits of a therapy that could be produced just by the idea that a treatment is being given, and unrelated to the actual effectiveness of the treatment.
plastic
In biology, refers to the changeability of a living thing, such as the brain. For example, if an autistic teenager can learn a new skill, their brain is said to be plastic.
plasticity
In biology, refers to the ability of a living thing to undergo change or adapt. The plasticity of the brain is demonstrated when someone learns a new skill.
PLP
Acronym for pyridoxal-5-phosphate. Enzyme important for many chemical reactions in the body, including the formation of serotonin and dopamine (two crucial neurotransmitters).
porphyrin
Category of naturally-occurring chemicals that bind metals. For example, hemoglobin is a protein in blood that contains a porphyrin which binds iron.
Prader-Willi Syndrome
Or PWS. Genetic disorder that puts individuals at risk for autism. Individuals with PWS are missing the paternal copy of approximately 5-7 genes on chromosome 15.
prompt
Giving instructions or coaching to help a child give the correct response when the initial response was not correct.
PROMPT
Acronym for “Prompts for Restructuring Oral Phonetic Targets.” The PROMPT©️ type of speech therapy focuses on the physical tasks that need to be working in order to speak words. The goal of this therapy is to connect motor movement of the mouth, face, and jaw with the motivation to speak. PROMPT©️ intervention is being used to help children with autism improve their language abilities.
PROMPT technique
Acronym for “Prompts for Restructuring Oral Phonetic Targets.” The PROMPT©️ technique of speech therapy focuses on the physical tasks that need to be working in order to speak words. The goal of this technique is to connect motor movement of the mouth, face, and jaw with the motivation to speak. PROMPT©️ intervention is being used to help children with autism improve their language abilities.
propranolol
Brand name is Inderal®️ or Inderal®️ LA. Known as a beta-blocker, this medication is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and other heart-related conditions. Propranolol (propranolol hydrochloride) is also used to help prevent migraine headaches in adults and children. Propranolol is being studied as a treatment for severe aggression in children with autism.
prosody
Study of the rhythm, emphasis, intonation, and other related qualities of speech. Prosody is important in writing poetry, and also is important in every day speech.
prospective study
Type of scientific study designed to plan in advance what will be measured, and then measure it during the study. A prospective study is different from a retrospective study, which is based on data collected by remembering or measuring things that have already happened.
protein
Essential nutrient that is the building block of cells and organs. Proteins are made of amino acids linked together.
Provigil
Generic name is modafinil. Provigil®️ promotes wakefulness. The FDA approved modafinil to treat narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, and shift work sleep disorder. Off-label, modafinil is used by sleep deprived people to stay awake and to treat fatigue, depression, multiple sclerosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The FDA rejected an application by the manufacturer to use modafinil as an ADHD drug due to the side effect of serious rashes. Modafinil is not approved for use in children under the age of 17. Side effects may include serious rash, chest pain, anxiety, stuffy nose, diarrhea, back pain, sleepiness and nausea or upset stomach.
Prozac®️
Generic name is fluoxetine hydrochloride. Prozac®️ is an antidepressant that may be prescribed for people with autism to help decrease aggression and depression. It can also help reduce repetitive behaviors, and improve language and social interactions. In some individuals, Prozac®️ can make these symptoms worse, so each individual must be monitored closely. Prozac®️ is indicated for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, and panic disorder in children and adults. This medication is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
psychodynamic psychotherapy
Type of psychotherapy that uses verbal communication between a person and their therapist to find a way to relieve emotional pain. Psychodynamic psychotherapy focuses on probing unconscious motives and conflicts to address the problem. It is similar to Freudian psychoanalysis, but does not focus on the unconscious as only sexual in nature in the way that the Freudian method does. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is being explored to help people with autism.
psychotherapy
Broad category of therapy that relies on communication between a trained therapist and the person with behavioral or emotional problems. Psychotherapy uses a variety of techniques to help people improve their lives. There have been some reports of psychotherapy being helpful for some people with autism.
psychotropic
Drug or medication that affects the mind, emotions, mood, and/or behaviors. Psychotropic drugs can sometimes be used to treat people with autism.
PWS
Acronym for Prader-Willi Syndrome. Genetic disorder that puts individuals at risk for autism. Individuals with PWS are missing the paternal copy of approximately 5-7 genes on chromosome 15.
pyridoxal-5-phosphate
Or PLP. Enzyme important for many chemical reactions in the body, including the formation of serotonin and dopamine (two crucial neurotransmitters).

14 R on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:24 am

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ramelteon
Brand name is Rozerem™️. Ramelteon is an oral medication (tablets) for treatment of insomnia (an inability to sleep well). Ramelteon stimulates melatonin receptors in the nervous system, thereby promoting sleepiness. Many children with autism have problems sleeping and ramelteon is currently being tested for effectiveness in children with autism.
RDI
Acronym for Relationship Development Intervention™️. Treatment program that centers on the belief that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.
receptors
Proteins that are attached to the cell surface and help cells receive biochemical messages from the rest of the body. Cell receptors are essential for communication between brain cells and other cells in the body.
reciprocal social interaction
Socially acceptable and meaningful communication between two or more people.
reinforcement
Process of using something such as a reward to offer to someone after a desired behavior that increases the frequency of the behavior.
reinforcer
Something offered to someone after a desired behavior that increases the frequency of the behavior, such as a reward.
Relationship Development Intervention
Or RDI. Treatment program that centers on the belief that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.
replicate
To repeat or copy. In science, replicate means to conduct a scientific experiment or study more than once to determine whether the results are the same each time.
Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Training
Or RPMT. AAC technique involving the training of both parents and children in a play-based incidental teaching method designed to improve communication in children with autism.
retrospective study
Scientific study that collects information by asking people to remember details from the past. For example, a retrospective study of diet and autism would ask parents to remember what their children ate in the past time period that is being studied, for example, the last 6 months.
Rett Syndrome
Type of autism spectrum disorder characterized by decreased rate of head growth with age, small hands and feet, stereotypic hand movements, cognitive impairments, poor or no verbal skills, difficulties with socialization. The disorder is more common in girls than boys, and children with this syndrome often experience gastrointestinal problems, general growth failure, and seizures.
Revia®️
Generic name is naltrexone. This medication may be prescribed for autistic children to help improve ability to socialize and make eye contact, and also to help reduce pain sensitivity, self-injury behaviors, and repetitive behaviors. Revia®️ is indicated for people who are trying to stop an addiction to alcohol or opioids (e.g., morphine or heroin). This drug is an opioid antagonist, so it binds to opioid receptors and blocks the binding of alcohol or other drugs to the receptors, thus blocking the opiates from having an effect so the person will stop their addiction. Some children with autism have higher than normal levels of beta-endorphins in their nervous system, and naltrexone can lower beta-endorphin levels. An extended release injectable form is also available and is called Vivitrol®️.
riboflavin
Or vitamin B2. Vitamin that is an essential nutrient that can only be obtained in the diet. Vitamin B2 is critical for energy production and other processes in the body.
Risperdal Consta®️
Generic name is risperidone. Available as injection, this form of risperidone is usually used to treat schizophrenia in adults. This long-lasting form of risperidone might also be prescribed off-label for other situations.
Risperdal®️
Generic name is risperidone. Available as tablets, oral solution, or orally-disintegrating tablets, this psychotropic medication is used to treat: 1) aggression, irritability, and severe behavior problems in autistic children 5-16 years old; 2) bipolar mania in individuals 10 years old and up; and 3) schizophrenia in adolescents and adults. Side effects might include weight gain, increased appetite, and sleepy or groggy feelings.
risperidone
Generic name is risperidone. Available as tablets, oral solution, or orally-disintegrating tablets, this psychotropic medication is used to treat: 1) aggression, irritability, and severe behavior problems in autistic children 5-16 years old; 2) bipolar mania in individuals 10 years old and up; and 3) schizophrenia in adolescents and adults. Side effects might include weight gain, increased appetite, and sleepy or groggy feelings.
Ritalin®️
Generic name is methylphenidate hydrochloride; Ritalin®️ is the tablet form, and Ritalin LA®️ is the extended-release capsule form. Ritalin®️ and Ritalin LA®️ are mild central nervous system stimulants that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce hyperactivity and repetitive movements. Ritalin®️ is indicated for treatment of Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) and narcolepsy (falling asleep at the wrong times). Ritalin LA®️ is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Rozerem™️
Generic name is ramelteon. This is an oral medication (tablets) for treatment of insomnia (an inability to sleep well) for people who have trouble falling asleep. Rozerem™️ works by stimulating melatonin receptors in the nervous system, which promotes sleepiness. Rozerem™️ may be prescribed off-label for children with autism who have sleep disturbances, and is currently being tested for effectiveness in children with autism.
RPMT
Acronym for responsive education and prelinguistic milieu training. AAC technique involving the training of both parents and children in a play-based incidental teaching method designed to improve communication in children with autism.

15 Glossery S on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:25 am

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SAL
Acronym for system for augmenting language. AAC intervention in which the child is trained to use a voice-output communication aid (VOCA) and a communication display to both receive and send messages.
Sarafem®️
Generic name is fluoxetine hydrochloride. Sarafem®️ is an antidepressant that may be prescribed for people with autism to help decrease aggression and depression. It can also help reduce repetitive behaviors, and improve language and social interactions. Sarafem®️ is indicated for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a syndrome associated with menstruation in adult women. This medication is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
saturated fats
Fats with no double-bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. Saturated fats are most frequently found in dairy products and meat.
schedule board
Board that can be used to affix picture cards, typically using Velcro, to lay out a schedule. Schedule boards can help people with autism prioritize their day without feeling anxious about what is coming next.
schizophrenia
Chronic, severe, disabling brain disorder that is characterized by a range of symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, disordered thoughts or movements, and lack of ability to plan or organize, and other symptoms. Some medications that are indicated for treatment of schizophrenia can be helpful to people with other nervous system disorders, including autism.
scientific literature
Research studies that have been described in detail and submitted to a scientific journal for publications. Typically, these scientific studies are reviewed by other scientists in the field to determine if the studies are scientifically valid and should be published (a process called peer review).
seizure
Abnormal electrical discharges in the brain that can cause neurons to malfunction. Symptoms of seizures range from an altered mental state (which can range from mild to severe), sudden and intense tensing of muscles, convulsions, and other symptoms.
self-management
Ability to manage emotions and meet a goal without external intervention. The ability to self manage allows the child to keep track of his own behavior such that he is able to stop certain destructive or disruptive behaviors before they start.
self-management strategies
Tools for improving social behavior in which a child with autism is asked to count the number of times he or she does a particular desired behavior. Once a given number is reached in a certain amount of time, a reinforcer (reward) can be given to the child.
self-soothing behavior
Action initiated by the child during times of stress. Self-soothing behaviors could include thumb sucking or rocking back and forth.
sensory cues
Sights, sounds, tastes, and smells that signify important events in the environment.
sensory information
Information that enters the body via the senses of sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Sensory information can also include the sense of where the body is in space as well as the body’s sense of balance.
sensory integration
Neurological process that organizes sensation from one's own body and the environment. Sensory integration makes it possible to use the body effectively within the environment. Children with autism are believed to have difficulties integrating sensory information.
sensory integration therapy
Type of therapy that focuses on improving abilities to take in sensory information and process the information productively. For children with autism, one or more senses can be over-sensitive or under-sensitive as compared with normally developing children of the same age. Sensory integration therapy is designed to help the child develop more appropriate sensory input processing and responses.
serotonin
Chemical that is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Serotonin is produced by certain types of neurons and by certain cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin is important in regulating mood, sleep, body temperature, appetite, and other processes in the body.
sertraline
Brand name is Zoloft®️. Sertraline is an antidepressant that may be prescribed to help reduce anxiety and repetitive behaviors in people with autism. Sertraline is indicated for major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and social anxiety disorder. This medication is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it. Also called sertraline hydrochloride.
sight words
Term referring to words that are often recognized as a whole word when read. Sight words vary for different people, depending on reading skills. Words that need to be sounded out while reading are not sight words. As reading skills improve, the number of sight words for an individual increases.
SLP
Acronym for speech language pathologist. Often another term for speech therapist. The speech language pathologist may have more training than a speech therapist. They may be more involved in studying and researching speech problems than a speech therapist.
Snoezelen
Controlled sensory stimulation as a form of therapy, usually in a room set aside for this purpose. The Snoezelen room usually contains specific types of sensory stimulation for sound, smell, touch, balance, and other sensory input. The stimulation can be tailored to each child. Snoezelen rooms have been used to help children with autism. They can be helpful for children with profound or severe autism who have poor verbal skills.
social skills groups
Tool for teaching appropriate social interaction in which children with autism meet regularly as a group with a therapist to learn about specific social situations.
social stories
Short stories that describe a social situation, including social cues and appropriate behavior. Social stories are used to teach social skills through the use of accurate information about those situations that the child may find difficult or confusing.
social story
Short stories that describe a social situation, including social cues and appropriate behavior. Social stories are used to teach social skills through the use of accurate information about those situations that the child may find difficult or confusing.
social support system
System of resources (e.g., peers, social workers, parents) that a person draws upon to support their social needs. People with autism may benefit from a social support system that provides services that other people may not need.
SODA
Acronym for Stop, Observe, Deliberate, Act. SODA is a therapy designed to teach social skills to children with autism. STOP describes each of four steps that are taught to help deal with social situations.
somatosensory stimulation
Input to senses other than the specialized sense organs (i.e., eyes, ears, nose). Input from the skin and internal organs is considered somatosensory input. For example, sensing pressure in joints when standing on one leg involves somatosensory input from joints and muscles.
sound production
Actual production of sound with the voice, which contrasts with the production of language, which can be done with the hands via signing or writing.
speech language pathologist
Or SLP. Often another term for speech therapist. The speech language pathologist may have more training than a speech therapist. They may be more involved in studying and researching speech problems than a speech therapist.
speech therapy
Type of therapy that focuses on improving vocal communication and speech.
stem cells
Cells in the body that can change or develop into other cells with specific functions. This process of change is called differentiation. For example, blood stem cells can differentiate to become specific types of blood cells like lymphocytes and granulocytes. Stem cell therapy is being explored as a treatment of children with autism.
stereotyped behavior
Repetitive physical movements common in autism, like hand flapping.
stereotypy
Repetitive physical movements common in autism, like hand flapping.
story scripts
Actual stories that can be used or adapted to teach social skills.
Strattera®️
Generic name is atomoxetine hydrochloride. This medication may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to help with hyperactivity, obsessions, and other behavior problems. Strattera®️ is usually prescribed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Strattera®️ works by changing the ways some neurons are turned on and off. One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
suicidal thoughts
Thoughts or plans to take one's own life or to kill oneself.
suicide
Act of taking one’s own life or killing oneself.
supplements
Vitamins, minerals, amino acids, or fatty acids that can be purchased over-the-counter and taken to add specific nutrients to the diet.
symbolic play
Play where something simple like a box can serve as a boat, or a house, or a doll bed.
Symbyax®️
Medication containing a combination of fluoxetine and olanzapine. Symbyax®️ is indicated for treatment of depression in bipolar disorder. Symbyax®️ contains an antidepressant (fluoxetine) and an antipsychotic (olanzapine). Symbyax®️ may be prescribed for people with autism to decrease anger, aggression, and repetitive movements; and to improve social interactions.
synesthesia
Neurological condition that results in the combining of two or more senses during perception. For example, someone might experience a certain smell every time they see a certain word. Synesthesia can involve any of the senses. The most common form is seeing letters and numbers in certain colors, even when the characters are printed in black.
system for augmenting language
Or SAL. AAC intervention in which the child is trained to use a voice-output communication aid (VOCA) and a communication display to both receive and send messages.
tactile defensiveness

16 T on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:27 am

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tactile defensiveness
Unusual sensitivity to anything on or touching the skin.
Tegretol®️
Generic name is carbamazepine. Tegretol®️ is an anticonvulsant medication used to help control seizures. Tegretol®️ may be prescribed for people with autism who have seizures, and can also help soften mood swings. This medication is indicated for treatment of epilepsy and for pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia. Tegretol®️ can have serious side effects that include a serious skin reaction in people with a certain genetic background, which is more common in Asian and Caucasian (white) people than other groups. The physician should be notified immediately if any rash appears. There is also a risk of agranulocytosis and other changes in blood cells, so the person taking this medication should be monitored with regular blood tests.
testosterone
Hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of male organs and characteristics. Testosterone can have many effects on the body.
theory of mind deficit
Idea or theory that people with autism have a limited basic understanding of the beliefs, ideas, thoughts, and knowledge of others.
therapeutic horseback riding
Therapy that involves individuals interacting with and riding on horses. Specially-trained therapists work with the individual and the horse. Therapeutic horseback riding may be beneficial to people with a variety of special needs, including children with autism. Therapeutic horseback riding is sometimes referred to as hippotherapy.
therapist
Person trained to provide a certain therapy. For example, a child with autism who rarely speaks words would meet with a speech therapist.
therapy
Intervention intended to help people with autism improve their health and behaviors. Therapy usually implies repeated sessions of treatments or activities. For example, speech therapy involves repeated visits with a trained therapist (or specialist) who works with the child to improve speech.
tianeptine
Other trade names are Coaxil (Europe) and Tatinol (Asia and Latin America). Drug currently approved for use in France that is an antidepressant. Tianeptine is a serotonin reuptake enhancer. This mechanism of action differs from many antidepressants that are serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Tianeptine has also been used to treat asthma in children, erectile dysfunction in men, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Topamax®️
Generic name is topiramate. Topamax®️ is an anticonvulsant that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce irritability and self-injuring behaviors. Topamax®️can also help reduce seizures. Topamax®️ is indicated for reducing seizures in people with epilepsy for ages 2 years old and up; and also for preventing migraine headaches. Topamax®️ is available as tablets and as sprinkle capsules that can be taken as a whole capsule or sprinkled on food. This medication may have a side effect of metabolic acidosis (the blood getting too acidic). People taking this medication need to be monitored closely by a medical professional and may require regular blood tests.
topiramate
Brand name is Topamax®️. Topiramate is an anticonvulsant that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce irritability and self-injuring behaviors. Topiramate can also help reduce seizures. Topiramate is indicated for reducing seizures in people with epilepsy for ages 2 years old and up, and also for preventing migraine headaches. Topiramate is available as tablets and as sprinkle capsules that can be taken as a whole capsule or sprinkled on food. This medication may have a side effect of metabolic acidosis (the blood getting too acidic). People taking this medication need to be monitored closely by a medical professional and may require regular blood tests.
total communication
Use of sign language and spoken communication together.
Tourette’s Syndrome
Neurological disorder characterized by motor or verbal tics. Motor tics are movements that are unwanted or unintentional. For example, unintentional flapping or moving of arms could be a motor tic. A verbal tic is the shouting out of unwanted words or inappropriate and derogatory remarks. An example of a verbal tic is saying a bad word at a time when it does not make sense to others.
treatment
Something given to or performed on a person to improve health or behaviors. A treatment can include medical interventions such as giving medications. A treatment can also include non-medical interventions such as acupuncture. A treatment is usually considered something done in limited numbers. A series of treatments is often called therapy.
tricyclic antidepressant
Category of medications used to treat depression and other neurological disorders, including autism; defined by a common chemical structure, and includes the drug clomipramine.
trigger
Something in the environment that happens before a behavior, and seems to almost always result in that behavior.
Trileptal®️
Generic name is oxcarbazepine. This anti-seizure medication affects the way neurons are turned on and off. People with autism who also have seizures might be prescribed this medication. Anti-seizure medicines may not completely eliminate seizures but might reduce the number of seizures. Doses and blood levels of this medication often need to be watched closely by a doctor or other health care professional.
tryptophan
Supplement used as an alternative therapy for autism. Tryptophan helps the brain make serotonin, an important neurotransmitter.
typical antipsychotics
Class of medications used to treat psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia. These medications are also prescribed for some people with autism to help reduce aggression and other negative behaviors. Typical antipsychotics are the older drugs that were developed before atypical antipsychotics. Typical antipsychotics were only named as “typical” after the development of the atypical antipsychotics. The newer atypical antipsychotics are considered first choice over typical antipsychotics because of fewer side effects in most people. Typical antipsychotics can be helpful for some people. An example of a typical antipsychotic is haloperidol. Also called first-generation antipsychotics.

17 U on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:28 am

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unaided AAC
Type of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Unaided AAC uses the person’s body to supplement or enhance speech. For example, sign language is a type of unaided AAC that uses hand movements to communicate.
unaided augmentative and alternative communication
Type of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Unaided AAC uses the person’s body to supplement or enhance speech. For example, sign language is a type of unaided AAC that uses hand movements to communicate.

18 V on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:29 am

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agus nerve
Nerve that comes from the cranium at the base of the brain, and extends down into the chest and abdomen. The vagus nerve plays an important role in heart rate, sweating, gastrointestinal functions, speech, and other functions.
Valium®️
Generic name is diazepam. Valium®️ or Valium Injection®️ is a sedative that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce aggression and anxiety, or for seizures. Response to diazepam can vary between individuals with autism, so each individual should be monitored carefully. Valium®️ or Valium Injection®️ is indicated for anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal, skeletal muscle spasms, and as supplemental medication for severe seizure disorders.
valproate
The sodium salt form of valproic acid. See valproic acid.
valproic acid
Brand name is Depakene®️ or Depakote®️. Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant used to treat epilepsy. It affects the way that cells get signals in the nervous system. Valproic acid can have serious side effects, especially in children. People with autism who also have seizures might be prescribed this medication. Anti-seizure medicines may not completely eliminate seizures but might reduce the number of seizures. Doses and blood levels of this medication often need to be watched closely by a doctor or other health care professional.
vancomycin
Antibiotic medication that has been used to treat some children with autism. Some children who received treatment showed improvement. The theory behind this treatment for autism is that Clostridium spores (from bacteria) or other bacteria make toxins that contribute to the autism behaviors. Also called vancomycin hydrochloride.
verbal behavior training
Or VB training. Use of ABA methods to help a child improve language skills.
Versenate®️
Generic name is edetate calcium disodium. Versenate®️ chelates or strongly binds to divalent and trivalent metals including lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese, iron, and mercury. Versenate®️ is usually prescribed for metal poisoning, particularly lead. Versenate®️ may be used in children with autism to reduce heavy metals in their body in an effort to improve behaviors. While Versenate®️ may be prescribed for children, serious side effects (including death) can occur as a result of Versenate®️ therapy. Versenate®️ has been confused with Endrate®️ (edentate disodium), which is usually administered only to adults under emergency circumstances because of the risk of death. Endrate®️ should not be used in children, according to the FDA and the CDC. Any chelation therapy in children should be administered under careful medical supervision.
video-modeling techniques
Tool for teaching social skills in which a videotape of appropriate social interactions is shown repeatedly to children with autism. The children then role-play the situation in the video themselves.
visual cueing
System designed to improve social communication. For example a visual stimulus (sign) may be sued to remind a child to approach an adult and ask for attention.
visual schedule
Personalized tool used to visually communicate a series of activities or the steps of a specific activity. Visual schedules may be created with photographs, pictures, written words, or physical objects.
vitamin B2
Or riboflavin. Vitamin that is an essential nutrient that can only be obtained in the diet. Vitamin B2 is critical for energy production and other processes in the body.
vitamin B6
Or pyridoxine. Vitamin B6 is a nutrient found in fish, meat and bananas. It is an essential vitamin, which means it can only be obtained through the diet. Vitamin B6 is important for the health of every cell in the body.
vitamin C
Or ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is an essential vitamin, which means it can only be obtained through the diet. It is found in many fruits and vegetables.
vitamin D
Group of fat-soluble compounds that play an important role in calcium absorption and in immune system functions. Vitamin D is likely to be important for many other functions in the body as well. Vitamin D is found in foods including enriched milk and mushrooms. The body can make vitamin D during exposure to sunlight. Scientists are studying the importance of vitamin D in autism.
Vivitrol®️
Generic name is naltrexone. The injectable extended release form of naltrexone, which may be prescribed for people with autism to help improve ability to socialize and make eye contact, and also to help reduce pain sensitivity, self-injury behaviors, and repetitive behaviors. Naltrexone is usually prescribed for people who are trying to stop an addiction to alcohol or opioids (e.g., morphine or heroin). This drug is an opioid antagonist, so it binds to opioid receptors and blocks the binding of alcohol or other drugs to the receptors, thus blocking the opiates from having an effect so the person will stop their addiction. Some people with autism have higher than normal levels of beta-endorphins in their nervous system, and naltrexone can lower beta-endorphin levels.
VOCA
Acronym for voice-output communication aid. A portable speech synthesizer that a child can use to create speech representing the pictures or words s/he selects from a visual display.
vocal stereotypy
Behavior of making sounds that often seem random, and are not associated with vocal speech. People with autism may have vocal stereotypy.
voice-output communication aid
Or VOCA. A portable speech synthesizer that a child can use to create speech representing the pictures or words s/he selects from a visual display.

19 W on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:30 am

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well-designed study
Typically, a well-designed scientific study would include numerous children, some of whom are treated with the therapy in question and some who are not.
work therapy
Therapy that involves supported work situations for people with special needs, including people with autism. Work tasks and environment are suited to optimize the success and learning of the individual.

20 Y on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:30 am

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yeast-free diet
Dietary change used as a complimentary therapy for autism. In this diet, all foods that are believed to support the growth of yeast (sugar, alcohol, simple starches) are removed from the diet. Antibiotics are also avoided in an attempt to prevent yeast overgrowth.

21 Z on Mon Jan 05, 2009 9:31 am

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zinc
Essential mineral found in oysters, meat, nuts, and some seeds. Zinc is important for overall health and especially brain development.
ziprasidone
Brand name is Geodon®️. Ziprasidone is an antipsychotic medication that may be prescribed for people with autism to help reduce hyperactivity, aggression, self-abusive behavior, temper tantrums, lability (mood swings), social withdrawal, and repetitive behaviors. Ziprasidone is currently in clinical trials to test effectiveness in children with autism. Some children have improved with treatment. Ziprasidone is indicated for schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and agitation in people with schizophrenia. Ziprasidone works as a dopamine and serotonin type 2 antagonist, and has other effects on the nervous system.
Zoloft®️
Generic name is sertraline hydrochloride. Zoloft®️ is an antidepressant that may be prescribed to help reduce anxiety and repetitive behaviors in people with autism. Zoloft®️ is indicated for major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and social anxiety disorder. This medication is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). One possible serious side effect is increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk of this side effect needs to be weighed carefully with the clinical need. Families should be aware of the need for close observation of the child or adolescent taking this medication, and maintain communication with the doctor who prescribed it.
Zyprexa®️
Generic name is olanzapine. Psychotropic medication that may be prescribed off-label for people with autism to reduce disruptive and repetitive behaviors. Zyprexa®️ is indicated for treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (mania). Zyprexa®️ Intramuscular is indicated for the treatment of agitation in people with schizophrenia and bipolar mania. Zyprexa®️ works as a dopamine and serotonin type 2 antagonist, and has other effects on the nervous system. Side effects can include weight gain, increased appetite, and dry mouth. Other forms of this medication are called Zyprexa®️ Zydis®️, or Zyprexa®️ Intramuscular

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